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A transistor is a semiconductor device that amplifies or switches electronic signals. They have a wide range of applications, including computer memory chips, switches, amplifiers, and digital logic circuits.  

Currently, the number of transistors that can fit on a microchip is limited because the material most transistors are made of, silicon, loses electrical power once it becomes small enough. In an exciting turn of events, MIT engineers have discovered a way to produce transistors with materials other than silicon, allowing them to be smaller and more powerful than ever before.  

The method involves growing 2D materials onto industrial silicon wafers. Atoms are forced into small pockets of a silicon wafer and encouraged to grow into flawless 2D materials. The 2D materials used, known as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) conduct electricity better than silicon on small scales. This breakthrough could be the key to creating better transistors and therefore better technology than ever before.   

Source: 

https://www.techtarget.com/whatis/definition/transistor#:~:text=A%20transistor%20is%20a%20miniature,which%20can%20carry%20a%20current.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-022-05524-0

https://news.mit.edu/2023/2d-atom-thin-industrial-silicon-wafers-0118